Self-affirmation within a group includes the courage to accept guilt and its consequences as public guild, whether one is oneself responsible or whether somebody else is. It is a problem of the group which has to be expiated for the sake of the group, and the methods of punishment and satisfaction requested by the group are accepted by the individual. Individual guilt consciousness exists only as the consciousness of a deviation from the institutions and rules of the collective.
Paul Tillich – The Courage to Be
Interesting parallels to Girard’s thought re: scapegoating.